SESOC

Journals Abstracts

These are short abstracts of the material printed in our journal which is published twice annually. The Journal covers items of interest to structural engineers, including but not limited to: technical papers, project reports, materials information, code reviews.

Journal: Vol 17 No. 1 2004

 

Title
Editorial: Letter From The Hon. Margaret Wilson Minister Of Commerce Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Margaret Wilson
Abstract

The engineering community has an important part to play in shaping the future of the New Zealand building sector. The central role of engineers from the start to finish of any construction project makes you ideally placed to give specialist advice in this time of change.
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Title
Editorial Letter "No Compromise Ever" Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

David Hopkins
Abstract

This is the slogan of a popular brand of honey. It could well be taken up by structural engineers. Those whom structural engineers serve take for granted that a structural engineer qualified to practice in New Zealand will not compromise safety when designing, carrying out or monitoring construction of structures. How well are structural engineers earning the similar level of trust placed in them, albeit not so immediately or directly as surgeons? Not very well according to John Scany whose Open Letter has caused widespread concern and debate in the community and amongst structural engineers.
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Title
The Bracing Performance Of Vertically Discontinuous Bracing Walls Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

G J Beattie
Abstract

The Timber Framed Buildings standard, NZS 3604 [I], provides a method for the determination of the bracing "demand" on the structure and the calculation of the combined strength of the walls in a light limber framed building, built in accordance with that standard. The process essentially calculates the bracing demand on the structure, taking into account the building dimensions, the number of storeys, the weights of the cladding materials, and the seismic and wind zones in which the structure is located. Some elements of walls are designated as bracing walls requiring special detailing to achieve a bracing rating that has been previously determined by testing. The sum of the bracing "capacities" of these walls is compared to the calculated "demand", and provided the capacity exceeds the demand, the structure is considered to be satisfactorily designed to resist the design earthquake and wind loads.
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Title
Diaphragms For Timber Framed Buildings Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Roger Shelton
Abstract

This paper describes a study carried out at BRANZ on timber diaphragms within the context of NZS 3604 "Timber framed buildings". The provisions of NZS 3604 relating to floor and ceiling diaphragms are described, and found to be somewhat confusing and inconsistent. An experimental investigation was undertaken to establish the strength and stiffness of the connection between wall and ceiling of the "weakest" of the detailing options provided for in NZS 3604. Examples of both traditional stick framed and battened ceilings were tested under cyclic loading both parallel and perpendicular to the joint. It was found that irrespective of the type of ceiling construction, the strength of the joint (both parallel and perpendicular) could be represented by a value of 1.6 W/m. Most applied cornice details (taped and stopped, and plasterboard coving - but not nailed timber Scotia’s) enhanced this value. Using this value of 1.6 kN/m, and the limiting dimensions permitted by NZS 3604, it is shown that the top plate provisions are a little deficient in providing the continuity required of boundary members expected to resist diaphragm chord forces.
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Title
Properties & Handling Procedures For 500 Mpa Reinforcing Steel Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Keith Towl
Abstract

A few cases of reinforcing bar breakages in 2003 caused some consternation but acted as a catalyst for a wider discussion on the suitability and fitness for purpose of 500 MPa steel in New Zealand. Investigations by Pacific Steel revealed that the problems were related more to the lack of understanding of the properties of the material and the criticality of appropriate handling procedures rather than the material itself. The development of the new reinforcing bar standard, the significant property changes and the causes and prevention of possible failure are explained.
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Title
Grade 500 Reinforcement And The Concrete Design Standard Nzs 3101 Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Dene Cook
Abstract

The adoption of the new reinforcing material standard ASNZS 4671 in New Zealand, necessitated a review of the formulae within the concrete design standard NZS 3101 to evaluate whether modification was required. The review of NZS 3 101 focused on four main areas:- 1. Overstrength factors; 2. The restriction that is appropriate on beam bars diameter passing through columns of ductile frames 3. The impact on structural stiffness of using higher strength reinforcing; 4. Welding. This paper provides a brief overview and explanation to the amendment to NZS 3 101.
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Title
Welding Of Reinforcing Steel Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Wolfram Woerner
Abstract

Controversial opinions about welding of reinforcing steel have been published during the last months especially with regard to Grade 500. The technology, the metallurgy and the welding requirements for this grade are in fact not different from many other steels that are successfully welded on a regular basis. It is essential to understand that high strength steels like Grade 500 require care and appropriate handling to deliver safe and reliable welded joints.
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Title
Performance-Based Building Regulatory Systems: Structure, Hierarchy And Linkages Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Brian J. Meacham
Abstract

Performance-based building regulatory systems are in use or under development in numerous counties worldwide. Within each of these regulatory systems there exists a structure, which includes enabling legislation, a regulatory instrument (regulation or code), and various types of supporting infrastructure, which combine to provide a system aimed at producing buildings that meet societal expectations in terms of safety, health and welfare. However; the structure is not always explicit, and in some cases may be incomplete. This is important, as, in order for the regulatory system to function as intended, the interdependencies between the various components must be understood. Otherwise, there may exist significant gaps in the regulatory system that could inadvertently lead to an incomplete understanding of the performance of a building. This paper explores the issue of performance regulatory system structure and the linkages that are needed to assure that pertinent interdependencies are addressed. Keywords: Performance-based; building regulation; regulatory structure; building design; performance levels; criteria; risk
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Title
Failure Modes For Hollowcore Flooring Units Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Richard Fenwick, Bruce Deam, Des Bull
Abstract

Experimental work undertaken by Matthews and others at the University of Canterbury has raised serious issues on the performance of hollowcore units in diaphragms supported by ductile moment resisting frame structures. A diaphragm constructed from these units was shown to perform inadequately in simulated seismic loading. Many lessons were learnt from this and other related tests. However; in an experimental study only a limited number of factors can be studied. In this paper an attempt is made to look at the different actions that can arise in hollowcore diaphragms. Where possible simple calculations are made to assess the likely magnitudes of these actions. There are two aims for the paper. Firstly to give practising structural engineers a feeling for the behaviour of these structural elements and secondly to indicate where further analytical and experimental research is required. In addition a number of proposals are made for detailing of these units to improve their seismic performance, though some of these require testing to verify their performance. Many factors influence the failure modes that may occur in hollowcore units. Due to the complex interaction of these with other structural elements it is not possible to develop design criteria for hollowcore diaphragms in seismic resistant structures from experimental tests alone. However; analytical models, when calibrated against test results, could be useful in contributing to this objective.
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Title
Moment End Plate and Angle Cleat Connection Design Concepts Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Clark Hyland
Abstract

The new edition of the Structural Steelwork Connections Guide, Part 1: Design Procedures, HERA Report R4-100.1: 2003, contains updated design procedures for commonly used connections. Part 2: Connection Tables, HERA Report R4-100.2: 2003, contains updated connection tables and detailing parameters for pre-engineered connections developed using the design procedures found in Part 1. This paper gives a technical overview of the general guidelines and updated design procedures for the Angle Cleat, AC, Moment End Plate, MEP, and Moment End Plate Splice connections.
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Title
Charts For Singly Reinforced Rectangular R.C. Beam In Flexure Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Doug Mackenzie
Abstract

While it is recognized that many structural engineers have computer programs that calculate the required area of reinforcing for a given bending moment, these charts are supplied to provide a quick means of doing so independently of computers.
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Title
Articles For Discussion_Performance Of One-Sided Welded I Section Steel Beams Under Inelastic Cyclic Loading Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Andrew Short, G. Charles Clifton
Abstract

Common practice for built-up beams with single sided welds has their use in seismic design limited to seismic Category 3 and 4 of NZS 3404 [I]. While NZS 3404 does not expressly prohibit the use of I section beams formed with single sided welds at higher ductility levels, confidence does not exist in the ability of a single weld joining the flange and web to withstand the local buckling experienced in the flange and web during severe earthquakes. Recent large scale beam to column tests conducted by HERA at the University of Auckland, were designed to simulate rigid, welded moment resisting connection performance under severe seismic demand. The specimens tested were based on traditionally used beam to column connections in New Zealand. A sufficiently strong column was used to ensure that during cyclic loading, the beam can develop a plastic hinge before significant deformation or damage is developed in the column. One test with a built-up beam of similar cross section flange and web element slendemesses and with a single weld joining the flange and web was used to determine the ductility capability of such a one-sided welded beam.
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Title
Project Corner New Zealand Expertise Used On International Stadia Vol 17 No1 2004
Author/s

Trevor Robertson, David Cooke
Abstract

Engineers from the New Zealand offices of Sinclair Knight Merz have provided expertise in seismic engineering and in complex analysis to some of the world premier sports stadia developments.
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Title
The Nees@UCSD Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table Vol 17 No2 2004
Author/s

J I Restrepo, J P Gonte, J E Luc0, F Seible, L Van Den Einde
Abstract

In October 2002, through the George E. Brown, JI: Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEE9 program, the National Science Foundation (NSF) awarded the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) $5.9 Million to provide the NEESporfolio with a Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table (LHPOST). The LHPOST will be the first outdoor and largest (12.2 m x 7.6 mj shake table in the United States. A large soil pit funded by the California Department of Transportation (Calhansj has been strategically located adjacent to the LHPOSTfor Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction (SFSIJ testing. The facilities will be used to conduct large- and fill-scale testing to investigate structural and geotechnical seismic performance issues that cannot readily be extrapolated from testing at smaller scale, or under quasi-static or pseudo-dynamic conditions, including performance under near-field ground motions. This paper details the main design basis, describes the specifications and possible uses of the NEES@,UCSD facility.
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