SESOC

Journals Abstracts

These are short abstracts of the material printed in our journal which is published twice annually. The Journal covers items of interest to structural engineers, including but not limited to: technical papers, project reports, materials information, code reviews.

Journal: Vol 21 No. 2 2008

 

Title
Letters to Editor Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

Richard Fenwick, Ashley Smith, Des Bull, Jeremy Chang et al, Richard Aitken BECA Group Ltd, Aaron Beer, Charles Clifton, John Butterworth
Abstract

Various: Process of writing and revising structural standards in NZ; further recommendations for improvements in the Standards process; paper “Fire Performance of Hollow Core Floor Systems in NZ” using stiff end connections as the recommended end support conditions; Work carried out by Beca 36 years ago was referenced in Precast News 07; Semi Rigid Flange Bolted Joint at Auckland Airport
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Title
Letters to Editor Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

Richard Fenwick, Ashley Smith, Des Bull, Jeremy Chang et al, Richard Aitken BECA Group Ltd, Aaron Beer, Charles Clifton, John Butterworth
Abstract

Various: Process of writing and revising structural standards in NZ; further recommendations for improvements in the Standards process; paper “Fire Performance of Hollow Core Floor Systems in NZ” using stiff end connections as the recommended end support conditions; Work carried out by Beca 36 years ago was referenced in Precast News 07; Semi Rigid Flange Bolted Joint at Auckland Airport
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Title
Technical Paper Boston Big Dig Tunnel Collapse – Lessons For Engineers Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

G. Fletcher
Abstract

During the 1990s an ambitious project was commenced to re-route the main east-west freeway at Boston (I-90) under the city centre. It was to become the largest transport infrastructure project in US history, worth an estimated US$14b. On 10 July 2006 a section of suspended concrete ceiling structure in one of the tunnels collapsed. A motorist was killed and expensive legal actions (criminal and civil) are unfolding. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has investigated and reported on the cause, with recommendations to many parties (private, public and industry) at local, state and national level. Unexpectedly, the stated fault was not a product failure (chemical anchors) but a failure of engineering processes controlled by many parties. This paper will review and explore the NTSB report, which includes detailed definition of the structures and issues involved, and what can be learned by all engineers in all fields as a result.
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Title
Technical Paper FRP Composites In Structural Engineering Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

T. Batten, E.P. Calius
Abstract

The authors have been part of a research team at Industrial Research Ltd. (a Crown Research Institution) investigating fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) materials for a variety of structural applications for about 15 years. IRL is currently pursuing the development of FRP structures for civil engineering applications within the framework of the FRST funded New Technology Rural Bridges programme. This programme was initially focused on vehicular bridges for rural roads but has now shifted towards load-bearing building structural elements, including floors, walls and roof panels.
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Title
Technical Paper Grade 500e Reinforcing Steel Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

David Hopkins, Russell Poole
Abstract

Tests on Micro-alloy and Quenched and Tempered samples available in New Zealand
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Title
Technical Paper Maintaining Our Heritage Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

Michael Hall
Abstract

When damaged or decaying timbers are found in a heritage building, the prospect of having to replace the historic beams can be devastating for the owners. The use of specially designed resins allows this to be achieved; not only can the repairs be carried out in an aesthetically pleasing manner, which in many cases are invisible to the untrained eye, but the structural capacity can also be maintained (and in the majority of cases significantly improved) whilst, of course, wastage of timber is kept to a minimum.
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Title
Technical Paper Economical Steel Bridge Solutions For New Zealand Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

Raed El Sarraf
Abstract

A common misconception is that short span steel bridges, with spans of between 10 and 30 metres, are more expensive than concrete bridges, particularly when precast concrete construction is employed. Moreover, another long held misconception is that concrete bridges are maintenance free and that, once construction is complete, the bridge will achieve a design life of 100 years with little or no maintenance. In reality, properly designed and maintained composite steel/concrete bridges provide a similar, or better, cost effective solution than their concrete counterparts. This paper looks at the different costs associated with concrete and steel bridges, including a summary on selecting, specifying and determining the life cycle maintenance cost of a coating system. A cost effective superstructure configuration is determined and a concrete versus steel cost comparison is given in an example from two real bridge projects where steel was found to be more cost effective than concrete. Costs include the superstructure and substructure costs as well as the maintenance costs. A summary on the cost benefits of ladder deck and network arch bridge systems is also given.
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Title
Technical Paper Dependable Performance Of Steel Structures In Fire With Case Studies Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

Stuart Oliver, Martin Feeney
Abstract

This paper describes the application of a structural fire model, known as the Slab Panel Method (SPM), developed by the New Zealand Heavy Engineering Research Association (HERA) in conjunction with the University of Canterbury. The SPM accounts for the inelastic reserve of strength available from composite Steel/concrete floor systems due to their two way deformation under fully developed fire conditions. The outcome of the performance based design process is a steel structure with fire proofing only to some of the Steel beams supporting the floor. Structural elements which are critical for stability are protected with fire proofing materials, while the floor beams for which fire proofing is not necessary for structural stability or Integrity are designed without this passive fire protection. This provides a structure which will remain stable for the expected temperatures and associated mechanical properties. Recent project examples where the SPM has been successfully used in New Zealand are reviewed. These Include a 20 storey 350,000 sq ft. office building and a 12 storey 360,000 sq ft. mixed use office and apartment building, both under construction in New Zealand. Validation of one of the design solutions using finite element analysis to assess the actual performance for the range of structural fire severity expected is described. The paper concludes that design methods are maturing to a level where a dependable and robust performance can be predicted using the SPM, so that those parts of the structure which require fire proofing can be specified with enough protection to maintain structural stability, and those parts which do not need this passive fire protection can be safely constructed without fire protection. Opportunities for the application of SPM in the North American regulatory environment are discussed.
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Title
Technical Paper Structural Failures – The Social Context Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s

J.L. van der MOLEN
Abstract

1. Causes of Structural Failures Some 80% of all structural failures appear to be due to some form of human error or error chain, “Structural failure” in this context, signifying that the structure (or part thereof) does not, or does no longer, fulfil the requirements of ultimate strength, serviceability and/or durability. 2. Human Error The prevailing Management attitude towards human error in the workplace appears to be that of detection and rectification, with the accent on early detection in order to minimise the rectification cost, a reactive approach. The questions seldom asked are: “Why do people make errors in their work?” and subsequently: “What actions may be taken to improve quality performance by reducing the incidence of errors?” Seeking answers to these questions would constitute a proactive approach. Consideration of this problem clearly is in the realm of occupational psychology, a subject in the social sciences. The paper will deal in detail with the following emerging facets: • The workplace “culture” prevailing in the construction industry, • Tender evaluation practices, • Leadership practices in the construction industry. 3. Remedial actions The paper will recommend the following policy initiatives: • Commencing a dialogue embracing the whole construction community with a view to replacing the prevailing adversarial culture by a co-operative one. • Replacing tender evaluation practices based on minimum tender price by ones based on maximum project value. • Replacing the present, mostly autocratic, cost-centred management style by a more democratic, value-centred one.
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Title
NZ Standards Update
Author/s


Abstract


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Title
Members’ Contributions Vol 21 No 2 2008
Author/s


Abstract

This example relates to the modelling aspects and design process of a portion of composite floor. In this example the designer made adjustments to the load data to satisfy the requirements of the design program, yet without proper consideration of other aspects, resulting in unintended and un-conservative consequences.
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