SESOC

Journals Abstracts

These are short abstracts of the material printed in our journal which is published twice annually. The Journal covers items of interest to structural engineers, including but not limited to: technical papers, project reports, materials information, code reviews.

Journal: Vol 16 No. 2 2003

 

Title
Letter to the Editor re The Case for Tied-Back Retaining Walls Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

R Francis
Abstract

Cantilever pole retaining walls proliferate. There are good reasons. Bobcats with earth augers are readily available, H5 treated poles have a proven record of durability, the design is simple - especially using the SESOC software. For non-engineered works there are numerous contractors. Nevertheless, cantilever walls are not very efficient.
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Title
Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite Materials For Civil And Building Structures - A Review Of The State Of The Art Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

Sulojana Shanmuganathan
Abstract

This paper is a review of the development and use of fibre reinforced polymer composites in civil and building structures. It draws from information and knowledge gained by the author through the study tour conducted between 7 July and 25 August 2001. The study tour involved a 7-week around the world trip meeting up with designers, manufacturers, contractors, academia, and government agencies, who have expertise in this emerging field. Countries visited were Japan, UK, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and US where research and development in fibre reinforced polymer composites excel. The review is purely the author's views and reflects upon what she learnt from the study tour.
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Title
Hardened Properties Of Concrete Containing New Zealand Aggregates Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

James R. Mackechnie
Abstract

Concrete is increasingly being considered as a generic material with predictable hardened properties regardless of its aggregate constituents. This assumption is not strictly true for New Zealand concrete, being made with a wide range of aggregate types of varying quality. A study of the hardened properties of concrete made with fine and coarse aggregates from Kaitaia to Invercargill is reported. Findings suggest that while strength properties are controlled largely by the quality of the cement phase, dimensional stability is more influenced by the quality and quantity of the aggregate component. Recommendations are made to help designers use more accurate values for material properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus and drying shrinkage values. An improved understanding of concrete as a material should reduce the risk of unexpected performance and help increase the efficiency of concrete as a construction material.
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Title
Strength Of Shear Stud Connections Between Steel Beams And Profiled Concrete Slabs Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

Yang Lin, Jason Ingham, John Butterworth
Abstract

An experimental investigation was conducted at the University of Auckland to quantify the performance of shear stud embedded in composite profiled slabs, formed by placing in-situ concrete onto profiled steel decking. In total, 18 tests were conducted using a new type of push-off test rig, with test units composed of either normal weight concrete or lightweight polystyrene concrete. This paper reports on and discusses the main results of these tests. Results indicated that studs embedded in lightweight polystyrene concrete performed comparably with studs in normal weight concrete. Comparison with strengths predicted by NZS 3404:1997 suggested that some of the equations in the Standard would benefit from a review.
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Title
Stability Of Precast Concrete Tile Panels In Fire Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

Linus Lim, Andrew H Buchanan
Abstract

This paper describes a study into the fire behaviour of industrial buildings which incorporate steel roof framing and slender precast tilt-up reinforced concrete wall panels. Recently, industrial buildings in New Zealand have been built with tall and slender tilt-up precast concrete wall panels. Some of these walls panels are cantilevered from the ground and directly support the roof steelwork. The stability of these wall panels in fire conditions is of concern as they may collapse outwards on to fire-fighters or onto the neighbouring property. The walls that were studied and presented in this paper were free-standing cantilever walls, propped cantilevers, or attached to a simple frame of steel beams and columns. Analysis was conducted with the non-linear finite element program, SAFIR. The results showed that, when subjected to the design fires used in these analyses, tall and slender walls are likely to buckle or collapse outwards if they are not well connected to the steel frame or if the building has inadequate resistance to transverse forces. Good performance can be obtained by providing fire-resisting connections between the panels and the steel frame, together with lateral resistance provided by a roof diaphragm or frame action. Two design fires were used and the results are sensitive to the design fire used.
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Title
Structural Engineering in NZ _ an Educator’s Perspective Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

Richard Fenwick
Abstract

During the last fifteen years there have been a number of significant changes in the attitude of Governments and Universities to teaching. Tuition fees and the rising cost of accommodation have placed pressure on students and made it more difficult for some groups of intending students to take an engineering degree. This pressure has had an adverse effect on student learning. In addition the attitude of universities has changed, at least partly in response to pressure from government. Research and publication in international journals has become of much more importance than it was in the past, and consequently teaching receives less emphasis than it did previously. Associated with this is a change in the type of person who is employed as an academic. Practical experience, once considered important for an academic, is now given much less weight than was previously the case. This is resulting in a change in the character of design courses. Intending structural engineers at both Auckland and Canterbury Universities take core papers in civil engineering together with a number of electives. If a student elects to take the maximum number of electives related to structural work the total time spent on structural related papers is approximately equivalent to 40 weeks of full time work. Of this close to 40percent is in the electives. Total study time for the degree is of the order of 112 weeks. The same figures apply to both Canterbury and Auckland Universities. The university degree teaching is aimed at giving a student an insight into structural behaviour rather than turning out graduates fully conversant with code clauses and current design practice.
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Title
The Design of Farm Buildings and the use of NZS 1900 in the Building Code Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

J T Dale
Abstract

The NZ Building Code B1VM1 (BIA, 2001) clause 13 calls up the archaic Division 11.2 of NZSS 1900 from 1965 ( S m , 1965) as the current design code for farm buildings. This paper reviews the design provisions of that ancient document and suggests modern equivalent design approaches within the framework of current codes.
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Title
Improved Details for Floor/Wall Ties and Plywood overlay diaphragms to strengthen URM buildings Vol 16 No 2 2003
Author/s

Grant Wilkinson
Abstract

This paper presents novel methods of strengthening unreinforced masonry buildings. Commonly used details for floor/hall connections and overlay plywood diaphragms can be expensive and may not always have effective load paths. The improved details offer several advantages over the existing details including reliable engineered load paths and cost efficiency. Loads, stresses, seismic, coefficients, ductility factors and Ø factors have not generally been stated in the paper: It is up to designers to assess those values for each project. The author has trialled these improved details on three projects in Christchurch with positive feedback from the building contractors.
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